Herbs are used in cooking, as medicines

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The name “Ayurveda” is made up of two words, ayur and veda referring to life and knowledge respectively. Together they mean “the science of life and longevity”. Ayurveda deals with the mental, spiritual and physical body complex. More than the specific sickness it is the patient who is sought to be treated.

A herb is a plant that is valued for flavor, scent, or other qualities. Herbs are used in cooking, as medicines, and for spiritual purposes.

Abuta

  • Botanical Name : Cissampelos Pareira
  • Family Name : Menispermaceae
  • Common Name : Abuta fluminum, Abuta grandifolia, Abuta grisebachii,

Africa Rue

Africa Rue is a perennial succulent shrub with narrow, pinnately cut leaves and white solitary flowers, growing up to 1 meter but usually not more than 30 cm high.  It has white solitary flowers, capsular, spherical fruits and brownish seeds in various shapes

  • Botanical Name : Peganum Harmala
  • Family Name : Salanaceae
  • Common Name : Hermal,  Syrian Rue, Peganum harmala, Ispandur, Esphand, Ozallaik.
  • Part Used : Seeds, and flowers.
  • Habitat :  Dry and sub tropical regions.

Properties of Africa Rue

The seed of Peganum Harmalais ( African rue)  contain four alkaloids, harmine, harmaline, harmolol and peganine. The blossoms and stems yield alkaloid peganine identified with 1-peganine. It also has aphrodisiac, analgesic, and anti inflammatory properties.

Uses of Africa Rue

  • African rue. Is a ventral nervous system stimulant and is used as an anti depressant.
  • African rue  beneficial in painful and difficult menstruation and for regulating the menstrual periods.
  • African rue help in treating insomnia since its seed have narcotic properties.
  • African rue has been found to be very beneficial in treating tapeworm infestation. Due to anthelmintic action in seeds it helps in expelling worms.
  • The  fruits of African rue (Peganum Harmala) are also the  source of a red dye and an oil
  • African rue has  antibacterial activity and is fairly effective against Protozoans. Its decoction is given for laryngitis. It helps against boldness, period aches, worms and lice.

Aloe Vera (Natural care taker of skin)

Aloe Vera, is a species of succelent plant, perennial plant whose height is 1.5 metres having a strong fibrous root with a large  stem that supports lanceolate leaves. The leaves of plants  whitish green in color  and on the margins it has spiny teeth..Aloe Vera  probably originated in Northern Africa, somewhere around Canary islands. Aloe Vera  also known as the medicinal aloe is generally found in arid climates and is widely distributed in Africa, India. Aloe vera is one of the most  cited herb since it is highly used in cosmetics.

  • Botanical Name : Aloe Vera
  • Family Name : Liliaceae
  • Common Name : Aloe, Barbados Aloe, Curacao Aloe, Socotrine , Indian Aloe, Aloe, Zanzibar aloe
  • Part Used : Flowers, Roots and leaves
  • Habitat : South Asia, Africa ,South and south western India.

Properties of Aloe Vera

Aloe Vera is a bitter herb with anti-inflammatory, astringent, emollient, anti fungal, antibacterial and antiviral properties, and is useful in the eradication of parasites and stimulating the uterus. It contains a host of compounds that are biologically active and includes Anthraquinones, Saccharides and prostaglandins apart from many other constituents.

Uses of Aloe Vera

It is surprising Aloe Vera has more then 500 uses. Some of the most common uses are listed below:

  1.  Internal uses
  • The herb is used internally to combat most digestive problems, including constipation, poor appetite, colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, asthma, diabetes, immune system enhancement, peptic ulcers etc.
  • Aloe Vera contains Aloemannan which stimulates the growth of healthy kidney cells and helps to slow the formation of kidney stones.
  • Aloe Vera juice is used for relive from heartburns peptic ulcers.
  • Aloe Vera is used to treat menstrual problems in women.
  • The oral use of Aloe Vera can be used on patients suffering from Asthma.
  1. External uses
  • Aloe Vera is used in the treatment of many external problems like skin irritation, burns scalds, sunburn, wounds, eczema, psoriasis, acne, dermatitis, ulcers, to stimulate cell regeneration.
  • Aloe Vera helps in reliving from sun burns. Aloe Vera has more then 300 including lignin which is a chemical compound which is present inside the skin cell’s wall and help in quick healing.
  • Aloe Vera  is very helpful against insects bite. Aloe Vera’s natural healing and soothing properties quickly heal the insects or bug bites while its natural cooling effects give quick relief from itching and pain. Aloe Vera gel stops their further infection, kill and eliminate foreign organisms if they are present.
  • Aloe Vera helps in formation of new cells and tissues and it highly effecting in curing frostbite.

Apart from the above mentioned there are more than 500 uses of Aloe Vera

  • Aloe Vera is highly used in cosmetics and is also commonly known as Aloe Vera:  natural caretaker of skin.
  • Aloe Vera is used for  instant relief from burns due to its great cooling effects.
  • Aloe Vera is used as natural moisturizer for getting soft skin.
  • Aloe Vera is used to reduce skin wrinkles, hyper pigmentation, body lotion, rashes, body scrubber etc.
  • Aloe Vera heals herpes .
  • Aloe Vera helps in minimizing  infection of eyes and ear.

Alpinia Galanga

Alpinia Galanga,  A perennial herb, root stalk tuberous, aromatic, leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute margins, white sheath long ligule rounded. Flowers in May, flowered panicle, white bracts ovate. Alpinia Galanga has orange red fruit

  • Botanical Name : Alpinia Galang
  • Family Name : Zingiberaceae
  • Common Name : Galanga Root,Blue ginger, Greater Galanga, Siamese Ginger, Siamese Galanga, Java Galangal, El Galangal, China Root. India Root. East India Catarrh Root. Lesser Galangal. Rhizoma Galangae. Gargaut. Colic Root. Kaempferia Galanga
  • Part Used : Dried rhizome, roots
  • Habitat : South east Aisa, China and Java, mostly indonesia
  • Properties of Alpinia Galanga

The root contains a volatile oil, resin, galangol, kaempferid, galangin and alpinin, starch, etc. Galangin is dioxyflavanol, and has been obtained synthetically. Alpinia galangal contains enzymes, polysaccharides and nutrients which have antibacterial effect and acts against streptococci bacteria..

Uses of Alpinia Galanga

  • Alpinia Galanga is a stimulating aromatic and is helpful in the digestive process.
  • Alpinia Galanga is highly useful in Rheumatism and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Asparagus Racemosus

Botanical Name(s): Asparagus Racemosus,
Family Name: Liliaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Genus: Asparagus
Species: A. racemosus
Popular Name(s): Asparagus Wild Asparagus, Asparagus Root, Satavari, Shatamuli
Parts Used: Tuberous Roots
Habitat: Found in the jungles around 8,000 feet altitude throughout India, especially Northern India.

Bamboo

  • Botanical Name: Bambusa Vulgaris,
  • Family Name: Gramineae
  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Division: Magnoliophyta
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Order: Poales
  • Family: Poaceae
  • Subfamily: Bambusoideae
  • Genus: Bambusa
  • Species: B. vulgaris

Popular Name(s): Bambou, Bambu, Bambu Comun, Bambu Verde, Daisan-Chiku, Gemeiner Bambus, Golden Bamboo, Grand Bambou

Parts Used: leaves, Bamboo Exudate, Banshalochan, Tabasheer.

Habitat: Throughout India, in areas up to 2100 m in elevation

Basil Herb (Tulsi)

The Tulsi or Holy tulsi (Osimum sanctum) is an important symbol in many Hindu religious traditions. Tulsi is a venerated plant and devotees worship it in the morning and evening. Tulsi grows wild in the tropics and warm regions. Tulsi has also been recognized by the rishis for thousands of years as a prime herb in Ayurvedic treatment. It has been traditionally used by Hindus, and now others, for its diverse healing properties. There are different types of basil plants, usually showing differing leaf coloration with varying scents and flavors, two of which are discussed here.

Bush and sweet basil have tender bright green foliage, which emit a spicy, clove-like aroma. Sweet basil leaves have a stronger perfume than bush basil and is smaller. Both varieties bear small, white, lipped flowers in autumn. Sweet basil grows to 75 cm and bush basil to 30 cm.

  • Botanical Name: Ocimum Sanctum
  • Family Name: Lamiaceae
  • Common Name: Basil, Sacred Basil, Holy Basil, Tulsi
  • Part Used: Leaves, Seeds
  • Habitat: Found throughout India, Africa and Mediterranean Region.

Properties of Basil Herb

It is used as an essential oil in aromatherapy. It is also used as stomachic, anthelmintic, expectorant, antipyretic canninative, stimulant, and diuretic, demulcent. It is used in malaria, catarrh, Bronchitis and gastric disorders. It also lowers blood sugar levels and its powder is used for mouth Ulcers. It is widely worshiped in India.

Uses of Basil Herb

  1. Internal Uses:

Basil has been an herbal remedy, used for:

  • Colds and influenza.
  • Poor digestion.
  • Migraine
  • Insomnia.
  • Used for ages to treat diseases of the brain, heart, lungs and .bladder.
  1. External Uses:
  • The leaves are dried and used as a snuff to combat headaches and colds.
  • It is also used for acne, loss of smell, insect bites and stings, snakebite and skin irritations.
  • Cosmetically, basil is used as the main ingredient for an aromatic body rub, which tones the skin.
  • An infusion of basil in wine is also used on the skin to close enlarged pores.
  1. Aromatherapy and essential oil use:
  • Since it can imitate the female hormone, estrogen (oestrogen), it is useful with menstrual problems – insufficient periods and engorgement of the breasts.
  • It benefits congested skin and helps to control acne.
  • Basil essential oil is used with great success for headaches and helps to reduce allergies due to the effect it has on the adrenal cortex, which controls allergies related to stress.

Balsam of Peru

Balsam of Peru is a large and a beautiful tree, with a straight smooth trunk. Its wood is as valuable as the wood of mahogany. Every part of the tree including the leaves abounds in a resinous juice. The tree is productive after five or six years, and continues to yield for thirty years; the flower has a fragrance which can be smelt a hundred yards away. The beans contain Coumarin and a volatile oil quite distinct from the proper balsam. This is used as a stimulant, diuretic, anthelmintic and external application to gangrenous ulcers and to remove freckles. Balsam of Peru is warm and aromatic, much hotter and more stimulating than Balsam of Copaiba and is used for similar complaints. It is generally found in Central America in the forests of San Salvado.

  • Botanical Name:  Myroxylon pereirae.
  • Family Name: Leguminosae.
  • Common Name: Toluifera Pereira, Myrosperum Pereira.
  • Part Used: Oleoresinous liquid.
  • Habitat: Central America in the forests of San Salvado.

Properties of Balsam of Peru

  • Antiseptic, Diuretic, Antibacterial.
  • Anthelmintic and external application to gangrenous ulcers and to remove freckles.

Uses of Balsam of Peru

The main uses of Balsam of Peru are:

  • Stimulant, parasiticide, expectorant.
  • Given internally, it lessens mucous secretions.
  • Used in scabies and skin diseases; it destroys the itch acarus.
  • It is a good antiseptic and is stimulant to the heart, thus increasing blood pressure; its action resembles benzoic acid.
  • It is also used in soap manufacturing, for its fragrance, and because it makes a soft creamy lather, useful for chapped hands.
  • It is especially useful for rheumatic pains and chronic coughs.

Balsam of Tolu

  • Botanical Name: Balsamum Tolutanum
  • Family Name:  Lamiaceae
  • Common Name: Tolu balsam, Basil Opobalsam, Resintolu, tolu balsam, Balsamum tolutanum, balsam of Tolu,
  • Part Used: bark and resin
  • Habitat: Colombia, Peru, Venezuela and some areas of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia

Properties of Balsam of Tolu

  • Antibacterial, Antiparasitic, Antiseptic.
  • Other Properties are antifungal, anti-inflammatory, cough suppressant, expectorant.

Bellaco-Caspi

  • Botanical Name: Himatanthus sucuuba.
  • Family Name: Apocynaceae.
  • Common Name: Agoniada, Agonium, Anaguba, Arapue, Bbashi pasha, Bellaco-caspi, Bellaku-Caspi, Caracucha.
  • Part Used: Latex from the bark.
  • Habitat: The Amazon rainforest.

Properties of Bellaco-Caspi

  • Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory.
  • The bark of bellaco-caspi kills cancer cells.

Bitter melon

Bitter Melon is also known as Bitter gourd or Karela, is a herbaceous tendril, bearing which grows upto a length of 3 to 5 m. It has been used in various Asian traditional medicine systems for a long time. It bears simple and alternate leaves.The leaves spread 4–12 cm across, with 3–7 cm separated lobes.The fruit has a distinct warty looking exterior and an oblong shape. It is hollow in cross-section, and has a relatively thin layer of flesh surrounded by a central seed cavity which is filled with large flat seeds and pith.Each plant bears separate yellow male and female flowers. Seeds and pith are white in colour in unripe fruitsand turns red when the fruit ripens; they are not intensely bitter. The skin is tender and edible. The fully ripe fruit turns orange and is too bitter to eat on ripening it splits into segments which curl back to expose seeds covered in bright red pulp. Bitter melon comes in a variety of sizes and shapes. The typical Chinese phenotype is 20–30 cm long. Some bear fruit of only 6–10 cm in length, which may be consumed as stuffed vegetables. These miniature fruits are popular in Southeast Asia as well as India. These species are a native of the tropics. It is widely grown in India and other parts of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Africa, China, and the Caribbean.


Botanical Name: 
Momordica charantia.

Family Name: Cucurbitaceae.

Common Name: Karela/Karella, ampalaya, cerasee, bitter melon, bitter gourd.

Part Used: its fruit is edible, Seeds.

Habitat: Indian subcontinent, Caribbean, Africa, China, and in some parts of Southeast Asia.

Properties of Bitter melon

  • Antibacterial, Anti-rheumatic.
  • Depurative, stimulant, tonic.
  • Antitumorous, Antiviral.

Uses of Bitter melon

  • The most common uses of Bitter melon are:
  • Bitter melon is used to prepare various dishes.
  • Bitter melon transformed into capsule form and sold as a food supplement.
  • Laboratory tests suggest that compounds in bitter melon might be effective for treating HIV      infection.
  • The leaves of the plant are brewed in hot water to create a tea to treat diabetes.
  • Like most bitter-tasting foods, bitter melon stimulates digestion.
  • Bitter melon contains a lectin that has insulin-like activity.
  • Useful for preventing and treating malaria.

Bobinsana

  • Botanical Name: Calliandra angustifolia.
  • Family Name: Mimosaeae.
  • Common Name: Bobinzana, Balata, Bobensana, Bubinianal, Bubinsana, Bushiglla, Capabo, Chipero, Cigana.
  • Part Used: Bark, root.
  • Habitat: Generally found along the river of the Huallaga and Mayo rivers in Eastern Peru.

Boldo

  • Botanical Name: Peumus boldus.
  • Family Name: Monimiaceae.
  • Common NameBoldus, ascaridole.
  • Part Used: Fruit and leaves.
  • Habitat: Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Brazil and bordering countries in South America.

Properties of Boldo

  • Anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic.
  • Diuretic, febrifuge (reduces fever).
  • Menstrual stimulant, wound healer.

Uses of Boldo

  • Used as a form of herbal medicine.
  • To calm upset stomachs.
  • Particularly used to support the gallbladder.
  • The leaves of this plant can be used as an effective hangover cure.
  • Teabags can also be made using this plant for commercial use.
  • Has aromatic leaves and thus used to make camphor.

Brazil nut

Though the name is Brazil Nuts, the most significant exporter of Brazil nuts is not Brazil but Bolivia. In Brazil these nuts are called castanhas-do-Para. Brazil nuts for international exports and trade come entirely from wild collection rather than from plantations. Brazil nuts also contain small amounts of radioactive radium. Although the amount of radium is very small but most of it is not retained by the body. Brazil nuts have one of the highest concentrations of phytic acid.

Botanical Name: Bertholletia excelsa.

Family Name: Lecythidaceae.

Common Name: Sapote, gutta-percha, phlox, persimmons.

Part Used: Nut and flowers.

Habitat: Guianas, Venezuela, Brazil, eastern Colombia, eastern Peru and eastern Bolivia. On the banks of the Amazon, Rio Negro, and the Orinoco.

Properties of Brazil nut

  • Antidiabetic.
  • Antibacterial.
  • Anti-inflammatory.
  • Antiulcerous.
  • Astringent.

Uses of Brazil nut

  • Reduces risk of both breast cancer as well as prostate cancer.
  • Brazil nut oil is also used as a lubricant in clocks.
  • Also used for making artists’ paints.
  • Used in the cosmetics industry.
  • The wood of this tree is also of excellent quality but logging the trees is prohibited by law.
  • Health commentators and nutritionists to recommend the consumption of Brazil nuts as a protective measure.

Brazilian Peppertree

Botanical Name: Schinus molle.

Family Name: Anacardiaceae.

Common Name: Peruvian peppertree, California peppertree, aroeira, aroeira salsa, escobilla, Peruvian mastic tree, mastic-tree, aguaribay, American pepper, anacahuita, castilla, false pepper, gualeguay, Jesuit’s balsam, molle del Peru, mulli, pepper tree, pimentero, pimientillo, pirul.

Part Used: Fruit, bark, leaf.

Habitat: It is mostly found in South and Central America and can also be found in semitropical and tropical regions of the United States and Africa.

Properties of Brazilian Peppertree

  • Analgesic (pain-reliever), Anti-inflammatory.
  • Antibacterial, Anticancerous, Anticandidal.
  • Antifungal, Antispasmodic.
  • Antitumorous, Antiviral.
  • Hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), Wound healer.

Cabbage Tree

The cabbage tree is one of the most distinct trees in New Zealand’s landscape, especially at farms. It is a leguminous tree is very tall and branching towards the top. They generally grow all over the country, but usually prefer open and wet areas like muddy swamps. Cabbage trees bear extremely scented flowers during early summers which turn down into bluish-white berries.

The grow to a height of about 15 to 20 metres, they have long narrow leaves that may be round about  1 or 1.5 metre long. As these plants get older, the stem generally dies out but new shoots grow arbitally from any part of the trunk. The bark of this plant is thick and tough like cork, and a huge fleshy root holds the tree firmly into the ground and prevents soil erosion.

  • Botanical Name: Andira inermis.
  • Family Name: Vouacapoua inermis.
  • Common NameCordyline australis.
  • Part Used: Leaves, root, stem, fibre.

Habitat: New Zealand, swamps of Manawatu. Common throughout farmland, open places, wetlands and scrubland of the North and South Islands, but are rare on Stewart Island.

Properties of Cabbage Tree 

  • Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory.
  • Antilithic (to prevent or eliminate kidney stones).
  • Diuretic, febrifuge (reduces fever), menstrual stimulant.

Uses of Cabbage Tree

  • Their strong root system helps stop soil erosion.
  • The fibre is separated by long cooking and these fibres are used to make ropes, baskets and sandals.
  • Cabbage trees are also planted to mark trails.
  • The seeds are fermented in rum and used for snakebites.
  • The durable wood is used for production of construction materials.

Cacao

Theobroma cacao popularily known as the cocoa tree is generally small in size which extends to a height off about 5–10 m .It is an evergreen tree and belongs to the family of Sterculiaceae. They are generally found in the deep tropical region of the Americas. Its seeds are used to make cocoa powder and chocolate.

The tree is mostly found growing wildly in the lower foothills of the Amazon basin at elevations of around 200–400 m.The leaves are alternate, entirely unlobed and taste unpleasent they act as a poison if consumed. The leaves extend 5 to 15 inches in length and 4–10 inches in breadth. The flowers mostly sprout out in large clusters directly from the trunk and elderly branches.

The flowers have a pink calyx and are small in size, around 0.5 to1 inch in diameter. This evergreen tree bears a fruit known as the cocoa pod; this pod contains 20– 50 seeds usually called “beans”. A tree begins to bear the fruit when it is four or five years old. A mature tree holds around 5,000 flowers in a year, yet only about 25 pods. usually called “beans”.

  • Botanical Name: Theobroma cacao.
  • Family Name: Malvaceae.
  • Common Name: Chocolate, cacao, criollo, cacaoyer, kakao.
  • Part Used: Cacao pod (Fruit).
  • Habitat: The Lacandon area of Mexico and in lowland South America, Central America and Mesoamerica originally distributed from southeastern Mexico to the Amazon basin.

Properties of Cacao

  • Aromatic, diaphoretic.
  • Carminative, detoxifier.
  • Laxative, menstrual, vermifuge.

Uses of Cacao

  • The cacao bean is used in more than 80% of chocolates.
  • Used in most of the agro-industrial plantations at a very large scale.
  • Theo bromine when absorbed acts powerfully as a diuretic, and has a stimulant or exciting action which is not possessed by chocolate itself.

Caigua

The caigua is well known for its small fruit which is popularily used as a vegetable. It is also known as achocha, achokcha, caygua, caihua, cayua, slipper gourd, lady’s slipper, sparrow gourd,stuffing cucumber in English, or korila in the Philippines. In case of disease it can be eaten as juice extract during a fast. It is also effective as dehydrated powder.

It has enormous traditional medicinal uses, mainly used to reduce obesity, control high blood pressure, control cholesterol, regulates the metabolism of lipids and sugar in the blood stream and decreasing cholesterol. The caigua is grown in many parts of Central America and South America, as well as parts of the Eastern Hemisphere tropics. The immature fruits may be eaten raw or pickled whereas the mature fruit is partially hollow and eaten stuffed.

  • Botanical Name: Cyclanthera pedata.
  • Family Name: Cucurbitaceae.
  • Common Name: Caygua, Caihua, Cayua, Achocha, Achokcha, Slipper gourd, Lady’s slipper, Sparrow gourd.
  • Part Used: Fruit.
  • Habitat: Grown in many parts of Central America and South America, as well as parts of the Eastern Hemisphere tropics.

Properties of Caigua

  • Anti-inflammatory.
  • Potent fat absorber.
  • Reduces cholesterol levels.
  • Contains Pierine, Resins, lipoprotiens and steroidal compounds.

 Uses of Caigua

  • Caigua was traditionally taken to reduce blood cholesterol levels.
  • Consumption in small quantities reduces cholesterol levels whereas in large quantities proves out to be harmful to eyesight.
  • Consumed in Peru, to rejuvenate & reduce cellulite.

Cajueiro

  • Botanical Name: Anacardium occidentale.
  • Family Name: Anacardiaceae.
  • Common Name: Cajueiro, Cashew, Cashu, Casho, acajuiba, Caju, Acajou, Acaju, Acajaiba, Alcayoiba, Anacarde, Anacardier, Anacardo, Cacajuil, Cajou.
  • Part Used: Leaves, bark, fruit, nut.
  • Habitat: United States, Europe, South America, Amazon rainforest.

Properties of Cajueiro

  • Antidiabetic, Antibacterial.
  • Anti-inflammatory.
  • Antiulcerous, Astringent
  • Antidysenteric, Cough suppressant, Decongestant

Calumba

  • Botanical Name: Jateorhiza palmata.
  • Family Name: Menispermaceae.
  • Common NameCalumba, calumba root, Columba, Colombo, kalumba, kalumb, jateorhiza.
  • Part Used: Root.
  • Habitat: Generally found in Eastern and Southern Africa but is now cultivated in many tropical regions, including Brazil and Turkey.

Properties of Calumba

  • Anticancerous, antacid, antiulcerous.
  • Antiseptic, Aperitif.
  •  Gastrotonic, Restorative.
  •  Vermifuge, used for Dysentery.

Campeche

  • Botanical NameHaematoxylon campechianum.
  • Family Name: Fabaceae.
  • Common NameBloodwood, bois Campeche, Campeche, campechier, kampes agaci, logwood, palo de Campeche.
  • Part Used: Bark, Leaves.
  • Habitat: Campeche is native to Belize, Guatemala and Mexico; however it has been originated in many countries of South America.

Properties of Campeche 

  • Astringent, bactericide, and depurative.
  • Amenorrhea, anemia, dysentery.
  • Hematochezia, parasites, and tuberculosis.

Camu-Camu

Camu-camu is a shrub.

  • Botanical NameMyrciaria dubia.
  • Family Name: Myrtaceae.
  • Common NameCamu-camu, Rumberry.
  • Part Used: Fruit.
  • Habitat: North America, Amazon rainforest.

Properties of Camu-Camu

  • Antioxidant, Nutritive, Astringent.
  • Aphrodisiac, Antidepressant.
  • Central nervous system depressant, anti-anxiety, tonic. 

Canafistula

Canafistula is a deciduous tree which grows at a very rapid rate; they are medium-sized, deciduous tree which grows to about 10 meters in height. They hold compound leaves with 5-10 pairs of opposite leaflets. It produces flowers which are golden in colour and hang in bunches of up to 40 cm long earning its common name of “golden shower tree.” There are many Canafistula species worldwide which are used in herbal medicine systems. .

  • Botanical NameCassia fistula.
  • Family Name: Fabaceae.
  • Common NameCanafistula, golden shower, Indian laburnum, purging fistula, purging cassia, gurmala, baton casse, chacara, nanban-saikati.
  • Part Used: Fruit, Leaves, Bark.
  • Habitat: Canafistula basically originates from India, the Amazon and Sri Lanka, and is now widely cultivated all over the world.

Properties of Canafistula 

  • Antioxidant.
  • Antibacterial, Antifungal.
  • Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial.
  • Antispasmodic, Anti-yeast.

 Uses of Canafistula

  • Used internally and externally for pimples, blackheads, and acne.
  • For skin problems (eczema, dermatitis, etc.)
  • As a diuretic and antimicrobial for urinary tract problems.
  • As a bowel cleanser and laxative.
  • Acts as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial for bacterial, fungal, and viral infections.

Chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius )

Chaya is a large, fast growing leafy  perennial shrub, native  of south Texas, is popular in Mexico and Central America and has been introduced into the United States (mainly South Texas and Florida) for potential uses as a leafy vegetable and/or as a medicinal plant. It has succulent stems which milky sap when cut, and can grow up to 6 meters tall. It is a very common tree in mexico with raw leaves being toxic, however once cooked its leaves are wildly eaten.

  • Botanical Name : Cnidoscolus aconitifolius 
  • Family Name : Euphorbiaceae
  • Common Name Chaya, chaya col or chaya mansa
  • Part Used : leaves and roots
  • Habitat : South America Mexico and Texas.

Properties of Chaya

Chaya is a good source of calcium proteins iron and vitamins. It  is a rich source of antioxidants. Precautions should be taken in consuming raw chaya leaves since they are  toxic as they contain a glucoside which releases  toxic cyanide. Cooking is essential prior to consumption to inactivate the toxic component.

Warning: In cooking or serving, Do not use aluminum containers, as a toxic reaction can result, causing diarrhea

Uses of Chaya

Chaya is very helpful in a number of remedies and helps in

  • Improve blood circulation,
  • Help digestion,
  • Improve vision,
  • Disinflame veins and hemorrhoids,
  • Help lower cholesterol,
  • Help reduce weight,
  • Prevent coughs,
  • Augment calcium in the bones,
  • Decongest and disinfect the lungs,
  • Prevent anemia by replacing iron in the blood,
  • Improve memory and brain function and
  • Combat arthritis and diabetes.

Datura Stramonium

  • Botanical Name: Datura Stramonium
  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Division: Magnoliophyta
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Order: Solanales
  • Family: Salanaceae
  • Genus: Datura L.
  • Species: Datura stramonium L.

Popular Name(s): Jimson Weed, , Datura Seeds, Stink weed, Mad Apple, Thorn Apple Stramonium, Dhatura TatulaParts Used: Seeds, Flowers, Leaves

Habitat: Common in Northwestern Himalayas and foot hills on dry slopes up to 1800 m altitude.

Part Used : Seeds, Flowers,leaves.

Epazote

An herb well-known to Mexican and Caribbean cooking. The name comes from the Aztec. It has a very strong taste and sometimes has a gasoline or perfumery smell. Older leaves of Epazote have a stronger flavor and should be used sparingly. Epazote was brought to Europe in the 17th century from Mexico and used in various traditional medicines. The herb was used by the Aztecs as a medicine as well as a culinary herb.

The plant has a strong creosote type smell.

  • Botanical Name: Chenopodium ambrosioides.
  • Family Name: Chenopodiaceae.
  • Common Name: American Wormseed, Apasote, Chenopode, , Mexican-tea, Paico, Pazote.
  • Part Used: Leaf and flowers
  • Habitat: Mexico and the tropical regions of Central and South America where it is commonly found as a garden herb.

Properties of Epazote

  • Anti flatulence
  • In the children to rid them of intestinal parasites.
  • Anti dysentery.

 Uses of Epazote

  • Usually added toward the end of cooking to prevent bitterness
  • It has also been for nervous disorders, asthma.
  • In menstruation problems.
  • Mexicans and Central Americans use epazote fresh in salads, soups

Erva Cidrera

A perennial plant with square stems. Reaches a height of 2 feet. Prefers

well-drained soil and full sun to shade. White to yellowish tubular flowers occur

in clusters on axils of leaves. Fresh leaves are used in salads, vegetables, poultry, stuffing, punch and on fish. Dried stems and leaves are used in teas. The plant dies down in winter, but the root is perennial. They also have a distinct lemon taste. 

  • Botanical Name: Melissa officinalis
  • Family Name: Labiatae.
  • Common Name: lemon balm, balm
  • Part Used: Herb.
  • Habitat: South Europe, south of England, especially in mountainous situations.

Properties of Erva Cidera

  • Contains in volatile oils
  • To Increase the healing
  • Free radical scavenging
  • Neurological activities

Uses Of  Erva Cidera

  • Carminative, diaphoretic and febrifuge.
  • It is excellent in colds attended with fever.
  • Used with salt.
  • The oil is used in perfumery.
  • used as one of the ingredients of pot-pourri.
  • The oil of lemon is distilled over balm and used in perfume

Espinheira Santa

  • Botanical Name: Maytenus ilicifolia
  • Family Name: Celastraceae
  • Common Name: Espinheira santa, cancerosa, cangorosa, maiteno, limaosinho
  • Part Used: Leaves
  • Habitat: Parts of South America and southern Brazil.

Properties of Espinheira Santa

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-asthmatic
  • Anti-leukemic
  • Anti-microbial
  • Antiseptic
  • Antitumoral
  • Antiulcerous

Fedegoso

  • Botanical Name: Cassia occidentalis
  • Family Name: Leguminosae
  • Common Name: Fedegoso, fedegosa, yerba hedionda, brusca, guanina, martinica.
  • Part Used: Roots, Leaves and seeds.
  • Habitat: Tropical areas of South America, including the Amazon.

Properties of Fedegoso

  • Antimicrobial
  • Antihepatotoxic
  • Antiparasitic
  • Antifungal
  • Antimutagenic
  • Antispasmodic

Genipap

  • Botanical Name: Genipa americana
  • Family Name: Rubiaceae.
  • Common Name: genipap, bilito, cafecillo denta, caruto, caruto rebalsero, confiture de singe, danipa.
  • Part Used: Fruit, bark, root
  • Habitat: South America and southern Mexico.

Properties of Genipap

  • Anti-intoxicant
  • Antiseptic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibiotic

Guacatonga

  • Botanical Name: Casearia sylvestris
  • Family Name: Flacourtiaceae.
  • Common Name: guacatonga, guassatonga, wild coffee, burro-kaa, café-bravo, cafeiillo, café silvestre.
  • Part Used:  Bark and Leaves.
  • Habitat: Brazil

Properties of Guacatonga

  • Anticancerous,
  • Antitumorous,
  •  Antiulcerous,
  • Antivenin,
  • Anti-inflammatory

Guaco

  • Botanical Name: Mikania cordifolia
  • Family Name: Asteraceae
  • Common Name: Guaco, guace, bejuco de finca, cepu, liane Francois, matafinca, vedolin, cipó caatinga
  • Part Used: Leaves
  • Habitat: South America,Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Costa Rica and Panama

Properties of Guaco

  • Bronchodilator
  • Expectorant
  • Antimicrobial
  • anti-inflammatory
  • Antihistamine

Guandu

The first thing that I want to tell about Guandu is that this is one of those things that is passed down from generation to generation. In this crop you only have to save few seeds for the next time for plantation. Guandu has been known since the time of the Egyptians. It has almost a complete count of amino acids,  which is what makes up a complete protein. It is a highly nutritious pea. it is widely distributed in most tropical countries throughout the world especially South America.

  • Botanical Name: Cajanus cajan
  • Family Name: Fabaceae
  • Common Name: guandu, adhaki, ambrévade, arhar, cachito, caja, chieh tu tzu, chieh tu, chivatillo, Congo-pea
  • Part Used: Leaf, flower, bean/seed.
  • Habitat: America and Egypt

Properties of Guandu

  • Antiinflamatory
  • Antidote
  • Antibiotic

Uses of Guandu

  • Used for for coughs, fevers, blood disorders, pain, respiratory infections, inflammation, sores, ulcers
  • Used as an as an antidote, expectorant, sedative, vermifuge, vulnerary; for tumors
  • Used for for bronchitis, colds
  • Used in cases like for flu, strokes
  • Used as an astringent, diuretic, laxative, vulnerary; for dysentery

Guarana

  • Botanical Name: Paullinia cupana
  • Family Name: Sapindaceae
  • Common Name: Guarana, guarana kletterstrauch, guaranastruik, quarana, quarane, cupana
  • Part Used: Seed and fruit.
  • Habitat: BrazilManaus, Parintins

Properties of Guarana

  • Anticoagulant
  • Antiseptic
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Appetite
  • Antioxidant

Gumbolimbo

Gumbolimbo is a tropical tree and adapts to a variety of habitats, from dry to moist, and is fairly salt-tolerant. Gumbo-limbo is planted for shade and ornamental use on backyard patios, or along streets and highways. It readily sprouts from branches stuck into the ground and is sometimes used to plant natural, living fences. Used for making glue. The fruit is a dark red, football-shaped drupe. The bark is light reddish-brown, thin, papery, and scaly like yellow birch.

  • Botanical Name: Bursera simaruba
  • Family Name: Burseraceae
  • Common Name: Gumbolimbo, gumbo-limbo, West Indian birch, tourist tree, turpentine tree, gommier blanc
  • Part Used: Bark
  • Habitat: Southern Florida, the West Indies, southern Mexico, Central America, and northern South America.

Properties of Gumbolimbo

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Antibacterial

·         Antivenin actions

·         Antiseptic

 Uses of Gumbolimbo

·         it is Used topically or drunk as a tea.

·         It is used in for cystitis, intestinal problems, nephritis

·         It is used for for aches(stomach), bite(snake), gangrene

·         Used for debility, hernia, cancer (stomach), corns, rheumatism

·         Used as an diaphoretic, expectorant analgesic, blood purifier

Huacapu

  • Botanical Name: Minquartia guianensis
  • Family Name: Olacaceae
  • Common Name: acaiguara, acapu, acapú, acariguara, acarioba, acary, ahumado, aracuiba, aralta, arekuma
  • Part Used: Bark
  • Habitat: Found in the rainforests of Costa Rica.

Properties of Huacapu

·         Antiviral

·         Antitumoral

·         Antiparasitic

·         Analgesic

·         Anti-inflammatory

Huacapurana

  • Botanical Name: Campsiandra angustifolia
  • Family Name: Fabaceae or Caesalpiniaceae
  • Common Name: huacapurana, acapurana, acapu-do-igapo, apikara, caacapoc, cumandá, gapo.
  • Part Used: Bark
  • Habitat: Peru
  • Properties of Huacapurana

·         Antiarthritic

·         Antiulcerous

·         Febrifuge

·         Tonic

·         Vulnerary

Huanarpo Macho

  • Botanical Name: Jatropha macrantha
  • Family Name: Euphorbiaceae
  • Common Name: higos del duende, huanarpo, huanarpo macho, huanarpo de Canta, guarnarpo macho.
  • Part Used: young branch stems
  • Habitat: Marañon river valley, Peru

Properties of Huanarpo Macho

·         Anti-asthmatic

·         Anti-diabetic

·         Anti-tussive

·         Antiulcerous

·         Nervine

Jaborandi

  • Botanical Name: Pilocarpus jaborandi
  • Family Name: Rutaceae
  • Common Name: Jaborandi, indian hemp, jaborandi-do-norte, catai-guacu, ibiratai.
  • Part Used: leaves and roots.
  • Habitat: America and west Indies

Properties of Jaborandi

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Anticonvulsant

·         Diaphoretic (promotes sweating)

·         Sialagogue (increases saliva)

·         Digestive stimulant

Uses of Jaborandi

·         Used for colds, flu, and pneumonia

Jarrinha

  • Botanical Name: Aristolochia cymbifera
  • Family Name: Aristolochiaceae
  • Common Name: Jarrinha, jarra, cipo mil-homens, milhomens, Brezilya logusaotu.
  • Part Used: Leaves and roots
  • Habitat: Brazil

Properties of Jarrihna

·         Antiparalytic

·         Antiperiodic

·         Antiseptic

·         Anti- inflamatory

Jatoba

  • Botanical Name: Hymenaea courbaril
  • Family Name: Fabaceae
  • Common Name: Jatoba, jatobá, stinking toe, algarrobo, azucar huayo, jataí, copal, Brazilian copal
  • Part Used: Bark, resin, leaves
  • Habitat: central America

Properties of Jatoba

·         Anticandidal

·         Antifungal

·         antibacterial

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Antibacterial

Jequerity

  • Botanical Name: Abrus precatorius
  • Family Name: Fabaceae
  • Common Name: Tento muido, Crab’s Eye, Precatory Bean, Jequerity, Cain Ghe, Graines Reglisse
  • Part Used: Leaf, Seed, Root
  • Habitat: Africa, West Indies, East Indies, China, Malaysia.

Properties of Jequerity

·         Antimicrobial,

·         Antidote

·         Abortifacient,

·         Anodyne

·         Aphrodisiac

Jergon Sacha

  • Botanical Name: Dracontium loretense.
  • Family Name: Araceae
  • Common Name: Jergón sacha, fer-de-lance, sacha jergon, hierba del jergon, erva-jararaca, jararaca.
  • Part Used: Tuber/rhizome
  • Habitat: Brazil, Suriname, and Guyana, Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador

Properties of Jergon Sacha

·         Antiviral

·         Antivenin

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Anticancerous

Juazeiro

  • Botanical Name: Zizyphus joazeiro.
  • Family Name: Rhamnaceae
  • Common Name: Joazeiro, juazeiro, raspa-de-jua, joá, juá, injuá, laranjinha-de-vaqueiro
  • Part Used: Bark, Leaves
  • Habitat: Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay

Properties of juazeiro

·         Antibacterial

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Febrifuge (reduces fever)

·         Wound healer

Jurubeba                                                                

  • Botanical Name: Solanum paniculatum
  • Family Name: Solanaceae
  • Common Name: Jurubeba, jubeba, juribeba, juripeba, jupela, juripeba, juuna, juvena
  • Part Used: Leaves, roots, fruit
  • Habitat: Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina.

Properties of jurubeba

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Antilithic

·         Antitumorous

·         Bile stimulant (liver)

·         Febrifuge (reduces fever)

Kalanchoe

  • Botanical Name: Kalanchoe pinnata
  • Family Name: Crassulaceae
  • Common Name: Air plant, balangban, bruja, clapper bush, coirama, coirama-branca
  • Part Used: Leaves, leaf juice
  • Habitat: South America, Africa, Madagascar, China and Java

Properties of Kalanchoe

·         Anti-allergic

·         Anti-anaphylactic

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Antitumorous

·         Antiulcerous

·         Antibacterial

Uses of Kalanchoe

·         It is used for upper respiratory infections, flu, and fever

Maca

  • Botanical Name: Lepidium meyenii
  • Family Name: Brassicaceae
  • Common Name: Maca, Peruvian ginseng, maka, mace, maca-maca, maino,
  • Part Used: Root.
  • Habitat: Cultivated high in the Andes Mountains

Properties of Maca

·         Aphrodisiac

·         fertility enhancer

·         Iincreases sperm count/motility

Macela

  • Botanical Name: Achyrocline satureoides
  • Family Name: Asteraceae
  • Common Name: Macela, marcela, birabira, marcela-da-mata, hembra marcela, Juan blanco, macela-do-campo
  • Part Used: Aerial parts, leaves, flowers
  • Habitat: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Properties of macela

·         Antiviral

·         Antibacterial

·         Analgesic

·         Anti-inflammatory

Manaca

  • Botanical Name: Brunfelsia uniflorus
  • Family Name: Solanaceae
  • Common Name: Manacá, manacán, chiric sanango, chuchuwasha, manaka, vegetable mercury
  • Part Used: Root, bark, leaf
  • Habitat: South America, West Indies, Brazil.

Properties of Manaca

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Anticoagulant

·         Antimutagenic

·         Antispasmodic

Mangifera Indica ( Mango)

Mango is mainly cultivated in Indian subcontinent. It is one of the most eaten fruit across the world and in some parts of the world known as the king of fruits and also hold the status of the national fruit. The seed of the mango contains the plant embryo. A ripe mango has a sweet smell and is juicy and sweet from inside in the form of pulp which covers the seed. In certain cases mango is also consumed unripe.

  • Botanical Name : Mangifera  Indica
  • Family Name : Anacardiaceae
  • Common Name : Mango, Amra Pod, Mango, an lo kuo, anbah, manga agaci, manga, mangot fil, mangot, manguier, mamuang, aangga, merpelam, pele
  • Part Used : Fruit, Seeds, Pulp, Stem Bark, Roots, Leaves, latex
  • Habitat : -India Pakistan , Bangladesh, latin America, panama.

Properties of Mangifera Indica ( Mango)

Mango is anti-asthmatic, antiseptic, antiviral, cardiotonic, emetic, expectorant, hypotensive, laxative. Mango contains essential vitamins and dietary minerals. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E comprise 25%, 76% and 9% of the Dietary. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants – carotenoids and polyphenols – and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Uses of Mangifera Indica ( Mango)

Apart from its sweet taste and used in sweet dish drinks and salads mango has a whole range of uses;

  • Dried mango flowers, containing 15% tannin, serve as astringents in cases of diarrhea, chronic dysentery, catarrh of the bladder and chronic  urethritis resulting from gonorrhea.
  • Unripe fruit juice is a restorative tonic and used in heat stroke.
  • Mangifera Indica ( Mango) bark contains mangiferine and is astringent and employed against rheumatism and diphtheria.
  • The resinous gum from the trunk is applied on cracks in the skin of the feet and on scabies, and is helpful in syphilis.
  • Seeds of the plant are used as cattle feeds and the bark being used for tanning hides.

Maracuja

  • Botanical Name: Passiflora incarnata.
  • Family Name: Passifloraceae
  • Common Name: Maracuja, passionflower, carkifelek, charkhi felek, maypop, maypop passionflower.
  • Part Used: Vine, Leaves, Stem
  • Habitat: South America to North America

Properties Of Maracuja

·         anti-anxiety

·         anti-inflammatory

·         antispasmodic

·         anticonvulsant

·         antidepressant

Matico

Matico has tall shrub, presenting a singular appearance from the segmentary character of its stems and branches. The leaves are harsh, short-stalked, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, pubescent beneath, tessellated or rough on the upper side on account of the sunken veins. The spikes are solitary, cylindrical and opposite the leaves; the bracts lanceolate; the flowers hermaphrodite, yellow, minute, and numerous. The fruit consists of small, almost black seeds.

  • Botanical Name: Piper aduncum.
  • Family Name: Moraceae
  • Common Name: anisillo, aperta-ruão, bamboo piper, cordoncillo.
  • Part Used: Bark
  • Habitat: Peru

Properties of Matico

·         Anticandidal

·         Antifungal

·         anti-leishmaniasis

·         antiyeast

·         antiviral

Uses of Matico

·         Used for digestive problems like nausea, stomachaches, vomiting, dyspepsia

·         Used as an antiseptic wound healer for cuts, scrapes, ulcers, boils, etc.

·         As a hemostat for internal bleeding

·         Used as a carminative and stomachic to expel intestinal gas and aid digestion

·         Use for colds, flu, coughs, bronchitis, pneumonia and other respiratory problems

Mimosa

  • Botanical Name: Mimosa pudica
  • Family Name: Fabaceae
  • Common Name: Mimosa, sensitiva, sensitive plant, dorme, dormidera, humble plant
  • Part Used: Leaves, entire plant
  • Habitat: Mexico, central America and South America

Properties of Minosa

·         Antibiotic

·         Antimicrobial

·         Anti-neurasthenic

·         Antispasmodic

Mucura

  • Botanical Name: Petiveria alliacea
  • Family Name: Phytolaccaceae
  • Common Name: Anamu, apacin, apacina, apazote de zorro, aposin, ave, aveterinaryte.
  • Part Used: Whole herb
  • Habitat: Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Africa.

Properties of Mucura

·         Anti-anxiety

·         Antioxidant

·         Anti-rheumatic

·         Antispasmodic

Uses of Mucura

·         Used for cancer and leukemia

Muira puama

  • Botanical Name: Ptychopetalum olacoides.
  • Family Name: Olacaceae
  • Common Name: Muira puama, potency wood, marapuama, marapama
  • Part Used: Bark and root
  • Habitat: Brazilian Amazon and other parts of the Amazon rainforest

Properties of Muria Puama

  • Antidepressant
  • Anti-rheumatic
  • Anti-fatigue
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Antiulcerous

Mullaca

  • Botanical Name: Physalis angulata
  • Family Name: Solanaceae
  • Common Name: Mullaca, camapu, bolsa mullaca, cape gooseberry
  • Part Used: Whole plant, leaves, roots
  • Habitat: Africa, Asia, and the Americas

Properties of Mullaca

·         Antibacterial

·         Anticancerous

·         Anticoagulant

·         Antileukemic

·         Antimycobacterial

·         Antispasmodic

Mulungu

  • Botanical Name: Erythrina mulungu
  • Family Name: Fabaceae
  • Common Name: Mulungu, corticeira, murungu, muchocho, murungo.
  • Part Used: Bark, root
  • Habitat: Brazil, parts of Peru, Latin America

Properties Of Mulungu

·         anti-anxiety

·         antibacterial

·         antidepressant

·         anti-inflammatory

·         antimycobacterial

·         anti-spasmodic

Murure 

  • Botanical Name: Brosimum acutifolium
  • Family Name: Moraceae
  • Common Name: ahua jonra, amapá doce, bois mondan, bururé.
  • Part Used: Bark
  • Habitat: South America

Properties of Murure

·         Antifungal

·         anti-inflammatory

·         Antitumor

Mutamba

  • Botanical Name: Guazuma ulmifolia
  • Family Name: Sterculiaceae
  • Common Name: Mutamba, mutambo, embira, embiru, West Indian elm
  • Part Used: Bark, leaves, root
  • Habitat: tropical America

Properties of Mutamba

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Antihemorrhagic

·         Antiulcerous

·         Antibacterial

Nettles

  • Botanical Name: Urtica dioica
  • Family Name: Urticaceae
  • Common Name: Nettle, big string nettle, common nettle, stinging nettle
  • Part Used: Root, leaves
  • Habitat: Brazil and other parts of South America

Properties of Nettles

·         Anti-allergic

·         Anti-anaphylactic

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Anti-asthmatic

Papaya

The papaya is a short-lived, fast-growing, woody, large herb to 10 or 12 feet in height. Papayas have exacting climate requirements for vigorous growth and fruit production. The blade, deeply divided into 5 to 9 main segments, varies from 1 to 2 feet in width, and has prominent yellowish ribs and veins. The life of a leaf is 4 to 6 months. The five-petalled flowers are fleshy, waxy and slightly fragrant.

  • Botanical Name: Carica papaya.
  • Family Name: Caricaceae
  • Common Name: Papaya, Papaw or Paw Paw (Australia), Mamao (Brazil), Tree Melon..
  • Part Used: Leaves, fruit, seed, latex
  • Habitat: southern Mexico and neighboring Central America

Properties of papaya

·         Antibiotic

·         Antibacterial

·         Antiseptic

Uses of Papaya

·         It is mainly used for degumming natural silk

·         It is also used in the manufacture of rubber from Hevea

·         The juice is used for warts, cancers, tumors, corns, and indurations of the skin.

·         The root infusion is used for syphilis in Africa.

·         Latex used locally as antiseptic.

Passion Flower

  • Botanical Name: Passiflora incarnata.
  • Family Name: Passifloraceae
  • Common Name: Maracuja, passionflower, carkifelek, charkhi felek, maypop.
  • Part Used: Vine, Leaves, Stem
  • Habitat: South America to North America.

Properties of Passion Flower

·         Anti-anxiety

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Antispasmodic

·         Antidepressant

Uses of Passion Flower

·         Used for headaches

Passion Fruit

Passion fruit is known for its beautiful white flowers with purple to pink crown blooms.The two main commercial varieties are purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis L.), and yellow passion fruit (P. edulis f. flavicarpa). >

  • Botanical Name: Passiflora incarnata
  • Family Name: Passifloraceae
  • Common Name: Maracuja, passionflower, carkifelek, charkhi felek, maypop, maypop passionflower
  • Part Used: Vine, Leaves, Stem
  • Habitat: South American tropics and rainforest

Properties of Passion Fruit

·         Antiseptic

·         anticancer effects;

·         anti-clotting

·         antioxidant

Uses of Passion Fruit

·         Provide a useful amount of fibre and iron;

·         Also used to relieve rheumatism or gout;

·         Used for centuries by indigenous tribes as a sedative or calming tonic.

·         Used for urinary infections and as a mild diuretic.

·         Used to treat asthma

Pata de Vaca

  • Botanical Name: Bauhinia forticata.
  • Family Name: Leguminosae
  • Common Name: Pata de vaca, casco de vaca, mororó, pata de boi, unha de boi,
  • Part Used: Leaves
  • Habitat: Tropical parts of Peru and Brazil

Properties of Pata de Vaca

·         Antidiabetic

·         Antioxidant,

·         Uterine relaxant

·         Vermifuge (expels worms)

Pedra Hume Caa

Pedra Hume Caa has small, green leaves and large, orange-red flowers. All parts of the plant are used in infusions, decoctions or extracts to combat this disease. By the regular use of Pedra Hume Cahas surprising results in the treatment of this ailment since sugar disappears from the urine in a short period of time.  It has been used by indigenous tribes in the rainforest for diabetes, diarrhea, and dysentery. The traditional use is a simple leaf tea with a pleasant, slightly sweet taste.

  • Botanical Name: Myrcia salicifolia
  • Family Name: Myrtaceae
  • Common Name: Pedra hume caá, pedra-ume-caá, insulina vegetal
  • Part Used: leaves.
  • Habitat: South America , West Indies

Properties of Pedra Hume Caa

·         Antihemorrhagic

·         Antioxidant

·         Astringent,

·         Antidiabetic

Peppermint

Peppermint is a popular flavoring for gum, toothpaste, and tea, is also used to soothe an upset stomach or to aid in digestion.It is also an ingredient in chest rubs, used to treat symptoms of the common cold. Peppermint is used to treat rheumatism. Laboratory research studies. Peppermint calms the muscles of the stomach and improves the flow of bile.

  • Botanical Name: Mentha piperit
  • Family Name: Labiatae
  • Common Name: hortela, mint, menta, mentha montana, menthe, nane
  • Part Used: Leaves, whole herb
  • Habitat: Europe and Asia

Properties of peppermint

·         Anti-spasmodic

·         Antiviral

·         Antifungal

·         Antibacterial

Uses of Peppermint

·         Peppermint oil applied to the skin can cause a rash.

·         Used to soothe an upset stomach or to aid in digestion

·         Used to treat headaches, skin irritations

·         Used to treat symptoms of the common cold

Periwinkle

The common periwinkle is perennial evergreen herb that spreads with trailing branches. The elliptical leaves are and shiny dark green in colour. The periwinkle bluish-purple flower is very attractive and consists of 5 fused petals. The stems form roots at the nodes as they creep along the ground. Periwinkle is an excellent all-round astringent that maybe used internally or externally.

  • Botanical Name: Vinca minor
  • Family Name: Apocynaceae
  • Common Name: Periwinkle, running-myrtle, cezayirmeneksesi, common periwinkle.
  • Part Used: Whole Plant
  • Habitat: Northern Europe, the British Isles, and New England

Properties of Periwinkle

·         Antibiotic

·         Antibacterial

·         Anti-inflammatory

Uses of Periwinkle

·         Used to treat high blood sugar in diabetics.

·         Can also be poisonous if used inappropriately.

·         Used for improved oxygen and blood flow, especially in cerebral veins.

·         Used as herbal medicine because of its side effects.

Picao Preto

Piaco Preto is a small, erect annual herb that grows to 1 m high.

  • Botanical Name: Bidens pilosa
  • Family Name: Asteraceae
  • Common Name: Picão preto, carrapicho, amor seco, pirca, aceitilla.
  • Part Used: whole herb.
  • Habitat: South America, Africa, the Caribbean, Philippines.

Properties of Picao Preto

·         Antimicrobial

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Antiulcerous

·         Antidiabetic

Picho Huayo

  • Botanical Name: Siparuna guianensis
  • Family Name: Siparunaceae, Monimiaceae
  • Common Name picho huayo, fevertree, arbol de la fiebre, asna huayo.
  • Part Used: leaves, fruit
  • Habitat: Mexico, Central America and the West Indies

Properties of Picho Huayo

·         Antitussive

·         Antiedemic

·         Anti-inflammatory

·         Antiseptic

·         Antispasmodic

Piri-Piri

Piri-piri is a reed-like tropical grass which can attain the height of 6 feet and grows in damp and marshy area.

  • Botanical Name: Cyperus articulatus
  • Family Name: Cyperaceae
  • Common Name: adrue, andek, chintul, guinea rush, hadrue, huaste
  • Part Used: Rhizome
  • Habitat: Southern United States, Africa, Asia, Australia

Properties of Piri-Piri

·         Anticandidal

·         Anticonvulsant

·         Anti-epileptic

·         Antimalarial

·         Antioxidant

·         Antibacterial

Samambia

Samambia is the future focus for Indian researchers in the treatment of psoriasis.

Samambaia may be defined as an epiphytic fern that are found  in the rainforests of  South America ,drier tropical forests in Latin America. Samambia is indigenous to the Honduran rainforests . In Brazil, the common name is samambaia; in Mexico and other Spanish-speaking tropical countries, the plant is known as calaguala.Samambia is an  heirloom yellow bourbon which have a  special varietal selection from Santo Antonio Estates.Samambia is a  fern native present in  tropical regions of the Americas.Species of Samambia are decumanum, leucotomos, aureum.

  • Family: Polypodiaceae
  • Botanical name: Phlebodium aureum, Polypodium  eucotomos, Polypodium decumanum

    Common Names: Samambaia, calaguala, huayhuashi-shupa, cotochupa, mirane, temakaje

  • Parts Used: Rhizome, Leaves
  • Habitat: Canopies of tropical rainforests, the dwarf palms of subtropical forests, cloud forests of the Caribbean and northern South America, Florida, including swamps and hammocks

Properties of Samambia

  • Anti-inflammatory, antidysenteric, antimutagenic (cellular protector), antioxidant, antipsoriatic, immunomodulator, neuroprotective (protects brain cells)
  • Other properties are anticancerous, cough suppressant, aperient (mild laxative), blood cleanser, cough suppressant, detoxifier, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), expectorant, febrifuge (reduces fever), hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), tonic (tones, balances, strengthens overall body functions)

Sangre de Grado

Sangre de grado may be defined as a tree that grows from 10–20 m high in the upper Amazon region of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia.Sangre de grado, means “blood of the dragon” (in Spanish.When the trunk of the tree is cut or wounded, a dark red, sappy resin comes out as if the tree is bleeding. Sangre de grado in simple words is a storage of plant chemicals including proanthocyanidins (antioxidants), simple phenols, diterpenes, phytosterols, and biologically active alkaloids and lignans.Red to orange sap seeps slowly when the trunk is cut; it is this latex that is used for medicinal purposes. Small vials of the sap are commonly sold in markets and shops in the countries where the tree is found, and increasing quantities are harvested and exported.Species of Sangre de grado is lechleri, salutaris, palanostigma

  • Botanical name: Croton lechleri.
  • Family: Euphorbiaceae
  • Common Names: Sangre de grado, sangre de drago, dragon’s blood, drago, sangue de drago, sangue de agua
    Part Used: Bark, resin/sap
  • Habitat:Present  throughout the tropics and the Amazon regions of South America, with the highest quality material originating in the upper jungle of Peru. The Missouri Botanic Gardens Tropicos  Database  holds records of Sangre de Drago from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Both sides of the Andes are represented.

Properties of Sangre de Grado

  • Anesthetic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antidysenteric, antifungal, antihemorrhagic (reduces bleeding), antileukemic, antioxidant, antiseptic, antitumorous, antiviral, neurasthenic (reduces nerve pain), wound healer.
  • Analgesic (pain-reliever), anticancerous, anti-itch, antiulcerous, astringent, blood cleanser

Sarsaparilla      

  • Botanical Name: Smilax regelii.
  • Family: Smilacaceae (Milkweed family)
    Common Names: Sarsaparilla, salsaparrilha, khao yen, saparna, smilace, smilax, zarzaparilla, jupicanga
    Part Used: Root
  • Habitat: Found in Central India

Properties of Sarsaparilla

  • Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antimutagenic (cellular protector), blood cleanser, detoxifier, diuretic, hepatoprotective (liver protector), immunomodulator (selectively reduces overactive immune cells), neuroprotective (protects brain cells)
  • Absorption aid, analgesic (pain-reliever), anticancerous, antioxidant, antirheumatic, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), digestive stimulant, febrifuge (reduces fever), stimulant, tonic (tones, balances, strengthens), wound healer

Walnuts (Juglans Regia)

Walnuts are a dry nut, enclosed between two semispherical hard shells joined together, and the fruit has a characteristic butterfly shape that resembles brains. Their white, slightly bitter flesh consists mainly of a blend of vegetable fats(60%), followed by a very respectable amount of protein (24%) and a lower amount of carbohydrates (10%). Walnut tree is deciduous tree which grows up to height of 30-130 feet and has around 21 species.

  • Botanical Name : Juglans Regia
  • Family Name : Juglanduceae
  • Common Name : Walnut, Persian Walnut, European Walnut, Akhrot
  • Part Used : Leaves, Barks, Fruits
  • Habitat : Himalayas, the Khasia hills, Japan and Europe

Properties of Walnuts

Walnuts are one of the best plant sources of protein. They are rich in fiber, B vitamins, magnesium, and antioxidants such as Vitamin E.  Nuts in general are also high in plant sterols and fat – but mostly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (omega 3 fatty acids – the good fats) that have been shown to lower LDL cholesterol. Walnuts, in particular, have significantly higher amounts of omega 3 fatty acids as compared to other nuts. Walnuts are very rich in juglone contained in the leaves and shucks of walnut fruits. This is an astringent, antifungicide and antiseptic substance which can be used as vulnerary and germicidal.

Uses of Walnuts

  •  Walnuts reduce the risk of heart disease by improving blood vessel elasticity and plaque accumulation.
  • Walnuts help in the lowering LDL cholesterol (the bad cholesterol) and the C – reactive protein (CRP).
  • Walnut helps in weight loss (even though the caloric content is fairly high) and enhances overall health.
  • Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, which is involved in inducing and regulating sleep and is also a powerful antioxidant, has been discovered in walnuts in bio-available form, making them the perfect evening food for a natural good night’s sleep.
  • Walnuts rich in Omega-3-rich helps in protect Bone Health and also Helps to Prevent Gallstones .It is for the presence of omega-3-rich it is also considered as brain food. Omega 3 also helps in anti aging.
  • Walnut is used to stimulate the circulation in the feet or hands when chilblains have occurred.(Make a decoction with a handful of dried leaves for a liter of water. Pour the contents into a pan and add water until warm without stirring. Fill another bowl with cold water. Mix them and pour in the water of the bath.
  • Walnut  properties can be used for the external treatment of hair. An application of the dry leaves with water, on the hair will help us to prevent its fall.
  • A vaginal wash with this dry eaves helps to eliminate the microorganisms causing vaginal flux. The astringent and germicidal properties of this plant can be profited to carry out gargles to treat affections of the respiratory tract such as  Sore throat and Pharyngitis.